BEE2017 Intermediate Microeconomics 2


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1 BEE2017 Intermediate Microeconomics 2 Dieter Balkenborg Sotiris Karkalakos Yiannis Vailakis
2 Organisation Lectures Mon 14:0015:00, STC/C Wed 12:0013:00, STC/D Tutorials Mon 15:0016:00, STC/106 (will run a week late) Wed 14:0015:00, AMO/219 Thu 10:0011:00, STC/106 Thu 13:0014:00, STC/106 Teaching Experiments 2
3 Organisation Homework Wiley Plus Assessment Chapter summary Review Question Selftest Exelets Assignment (weekly) Exam in June (90%) Variants of homework assignments and self test used Questions relating to experiments and tutorial exercises Weekly homework assignment (10%) do 8 out of 10 satisfactorily satisfactorily: 30 % of marks 3
4 Textbook: Microeconomics: 2 nd Edition David Besanko and Ronald Braeutigam 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
5 Microeconomics: 2 nd Edition David Besanko and Ronald Braeutigam Chapter 11: Monopoly and Monopsony Prepared by Katharine Rockett + DGB
6 1. Motivation: Brush Wellman 2. The Monopolist's Profit Maximization Problem The Profit Maximization Condition Equilibrium The Inverse Elasticity Pricing Rule 3. Multiplant Monopoly and Cartel Production 4. The Welfare Economics of Monopoly 6
7 MONOPOLY Examples Do they exist? Do perfectly competitve markets exist? Protected by state. Airline industry, local monopoly. Natural monopoly. temporal monopoly. This chapter: price only instrument. Inefficiency: strawberries. 7
8 Monopolist producing a single output Revenue: TR=P*Q=P*D(P)=D 1 (Q)*Q Q=D(P) demand function: what quantity will be sold at price P? (P independent variable) P=D 1 (Q) inverse demand function: What price will the monopolist achieve if he brings Q units of output to the market? (Q independent variable) D(D 1 (Q))=Q; D 1 (D(P))=P 8
9 Downward sloping demand curve 9
10 Monopoly Costs: TC(Q) Profits: Π(Q)=TR(Q)TC(Q) Profits: Π(P)=TR(P)TC(D(P)) Firstorder condition (FOC) for an interior profit optimum: Π (Q)=MR(Q)MC(Q)=0 10
11 Profit maximizing condition for a monopolist: In other words, Recall: TR(Q)/ Q = TC(Q)/ Q MR(Q) = MC(Q) The monopolist sets output so that marginal profit of additional production is just zero. A perfect competitor sets P = MC in other words, marginal revenue equals price. 11
12 Why is this not so for the monopolist? TR = P1 Q + Q0 P => TR = P1 Q + Q0 P => and, as we let the change in output get very small, this approaches: MR(Q0) = P0 + Q0 P/ Q MR(Q 0 ) < P 0 for any Q 0 > 0 MR may be negative or positive for a perfect competitor, demand was "flat" so MR = P 12
13 Example: Marginal Revenue Competitive firm Monopolist Price Price Demand facing firm Demand facing firm P 0 P 0 P 1 C A B A B q q+1 Firm output Q 0 Q 0 +1 Firm output 13
14 Monopoly 14
15 Price Example: Marginal Revenue Curve and Demand The MR curve lies below the demand curve. P(Q 0 ) MR(Q 0 ) P(Q)= D  1 (Q), the (inverse) demand curve MR(Q), the marginal revenue curve Q 0 Quantity 15
16 Definition: An agent has Market Power if s/he can affect, through his/her own actions, the price that prevails in the market. Sometimes this is thought of as the degree to which a firm can raise price above marginal cost. 16
17 Example P(Q) = a  bq linear demand A) What is the equation of the marginal revenue curve? P/ Q = b MR(Q) = P + Q P/ Q = a  bq + Q(b) = a  2bQ **twice the slope of demand for linear demand** 17
18 Example B) What is the equation of the average revenue curve? AR(Q) = TR(Q)/Q = P = a  bq (you earn more on the average unit than on an additional unit ) 18
19 Example C) What is the profitmaximizing output if: TC(Q) = Q + Q 2 MC(Q) = Q AVC(Q) = 20 + Q P(Q) = 100 Q MR = MC => 1002Q = Q 4Q=80 Q* = 20 P* = 80 19
20 In the short run, the monopolist shuts down if the most profitable price does not cover AVC (or average nonsunk costs). In the long run, the monopolist shuts down if the most profitable price does not cover AC. Here, P* exceeds both AVC and AC. π* =700 (= Q*P* (Q*)  Q* 2 ) 20
21 This profit is positive. Why? Because the monopolist takes into account the pricereducing effect of increased output so that the monopolist has less incentive to increase output than the perfect competitor. Profit can remain positive in the long run. Why? Because we are assuming that there is no possible entry in this industry, so profits are not competed away. 21
22 100 Price Example: Positive Profits for Monopolist MC AVC MR Demand curve Quantity 22
23 100 Price Example: Positive Profits for Monopolist MC AVC 80 e 20 MR Demand curve Quantity 23
24 100 Price Example: Positive Profits for Monopolist MC AVC 80 e AC 20 MR Demand curve Quantity 24
25 A monopolist does not have a supply curve (i.e., an optimal output for any exogenouslygiven price) because price is endogenouslydetermined by demand: the monopolist picks a preferred point on the demand curve. One could also think of the monopolist choosing output to maximize profits subject to the constrain that price be determined by the demand curve. 25
26 26
27 Marginal Revenue 27
28 28
29 We can rewrite the MR curve as follows: MR = P + Q P/ Q = P(1 + (Q/P)( P/ Q)) = P(1 + 1/ε) where: ε is the price elasticity of demand, (P/Q)( Q/ P) 29
30 Elasticity When demand is elastic (ε < 1), MR > 0 When demand is inelastic (ε > 1), MR < 0 When demand is unit elastic (ε = 1), MR= 0 30
31 Using this formula: When demand is elastic (ε < 1), MR > 0 When demand is inelastic (ε > 1), MR < 0 When demand is unit elastic (ε = 1), MR= 0 31
32 Price Example: Elastic Region of the Demand Curve a Elastic region (ε < 1), MR > 0 Unit elastic (ε=1), MR=0 Inelastic region (0>ε>1), MR<0 a/2b a/b Quantity 32
33 Therefore, The monopolist will always operate on the elastic region of the market demand curve As demand becomes more elastic at each point, marginal revenue approaches price Example: Q D = 100P 2 MC = $50 a. What is the monopolist's optimal price? MR = MC P(1+1/ε) = MC P(1+1/(2)) = 50 P* =
34 More generally: P(1+1/ε) =MC PMC=P/ ε The FOC takes the form (PMC)/P=1/ ε The markup equals the (negative of the) inverse elasticity 34
35 b. Now, suppose that Q D = 100P b and MC = c (constant). What is the monopolist's optimal price now? P(1+1/b) = c P* = cb/(b1) We need the assumption that b > 1 ("demand is everywhere elastic") to get an interior solution. As b > 1 (demand becomes everywhere less elastic), P* > infinity and P  MC, the "pricecost margin" also increases to infinity. As b >, the monopoly price approaches marginal cost. 35
36 Restating the monopolist's profit maximization condition, we have: P*(1 + 1/ε) = MC(Q*) or [P*  MC(Q*)]/P* = 1/ε In words, the monopolist's ability to price above marginal cost depends on the elasticity of demand. 36
37 Definition: The Lerner Index of market power pricecost margin, (P*MC)/P*. This index ranges between 0 (for the competitive firm) and 1, for a monopolist facing a unit elastic demand. is the 37
38 Recall: In the perfectly competitive model, we could derive firm outputs that varied depending on the cost characteristics of the firms. The analogous problem here is to derive how a monopolist would allocate production across the plants under its management. Assume: The monopolist has two plants: one plant has marginal cost MC 1 (Q) and the other has marginal cost MC 2 (Q). 38
39 Question: How should the monopolist allocate production across the two plants? Whenever the marginal costs of the two plants are not equal, the firm can increase profits by reallocating production towards the lower marginal cost plant and away from the higher marginal cost plant. Example: Suppose the monopolist wishes to produce 6 units 3 units per plant => MC 1 = $6 MC 2 = $3 Reducing plant 1's units and increasing plant 2's units raises profits 39
40 Price MC 1 MC T 6 3 Example: MultiPlant Monopolist This is analogous to exit by higher cost firms and an increase in entry by lowcost firms in the perfectly competitive model Quantity 40
41 Price MC 1 MC 2 MC T 6 3 Example: MultiPlant Monopolist This is analogous to exit by higher cost firms and an increase in entry by lowcost firms in the perfectly competitive model Quantity 41
42 Question: How much should the monopolist produce in total? Definition: The MultiPlant Marginal Cost Curve traces out the set of points generated when the marginal cost curves of the individual plants are horizontally summed (i.e. this curve shows the total output that can be produced at every level of marginal cost.) Example: For MC 1 = $6, Q 1 = 3 MC 2 = $6, Q 2 = 6 Therefore, for MC T = $6, Q T = Q 1 + Q 2 = 9 42
43 The profit maximization condition that determines optimal total output is now: MR = MC T The marginal cost of a change in output for the monopolist is the change after all optimal adjustment has occurred in the distribution of production across plants. 43
44 Price Example: MultiPlant Monopolist Maximization MC 1 MC 2 MC T P* MR Quantity 44
45 Price Example: MultiPlant Monopolist Maximization MC 1 MC 2 MC T P* Demand Q* 1 Q* 2 Q* T MR Quantity 45
46 Example P = 1203Q demand MC 1 = Q 1 plant 1 MC 2 = Q 2 plant 2 a. What are the monopolist's optimal total quantity and price? Step 1: Derive MC T as the horizontal sum of MC 1 and MC 2 Inverting marginal cost (to get Q as a function of MC), we have: Q 1 = 1/2 + (1/20)MC T Q 2 = (1/5)MC T 46
47 Let MC T equal the common marginal cost level in the two plants. Then: Q T = Q 1 + Q 2 = MC T And, writing this as MC T as a function of Q T : MC T = Q T Using the monopolist's profit maximization condition: MR = MC T => 1206Q T = Q T Q T * = 7 P* = 1203(7) = 99 47
48 b. What is the optimal division of output across the monopolist's plants? MC T* = (7) = 78 Therefore, Q 1* = 1/2 + (1/20)(78) = 3.4 Q 2* = (1/5)(78) = 3.6 Definition: A cartel is a group of firms that collusively determine the price and output in a market. In other words, a cartel acts as a single monopoly firm that maximizes total industry profit. 48
49 The problem of optimally allocating output across cartel members is identical to the monopolist's problem of allocating output across individual plants. Therefore, a cartel does not necessarily divide up market shares equally among members: higher marginal cost firms produce less. This gives us a benchmark against which we can compare actual industry and firm output to see how far the industry is from the collusive equilibrium. 49
50 Since the monopoly equilibrium output does not, in general, correspond to the perfectly competitive equilibrium it entails a deadweight loss. 1. Suppose that we compare a monopolist to a competitive market, where the supply curve of the competitors is equal to the marginal cost curve of the monopolist 50
51 CS with competition: A+B+C CS with monopoly: A PS with competition: D+E PS with monopoly:b+d DWL = C+E MC P M P C A D B C E Example: The Welfare Effect of Monopoly Demand Q M Q C MR 51
52 2.Deadweight loss in a Natural Monopoly Market Definition: A market is a natural monopoly if the total cost incurred by a single firm producing output is less than the combined total cost of two or more firms producing this same level of output among them. Benchmark: What would be the market outcome if the monopolist produced according to the same rule as a perfect competitor (i.e., P = MC)? 52
53 Price Example: Natural Monopoly Demand Quantity 53
54 Price Example: Natural Monopoly Natural Monopoly with everywhere falling average cost AC Demand Quantity 54
55 P = MC cannot be the appropriate benchmark here to calculate deadweight loss due to monopoly P = AC may be a better benchmark for small outputs, this is a natural monopoly for large outputs, it is not P = MC is the appropriate benchmark for these types of natural monopolies. 55
56 Example: Natural Monopoly with Rising Average Cost Price Natural Monopoly with rising average cost 1.2 AC Demand Quantity 56
57 Example: Natural Monopoly with Rising Average Cost Price Natural Monopoly with rising average cost Demand Quantity 57
58 Example: Natural Monopoly with Rising Average Cost Price Natural Monopoly with rising average cost AC Demand Quantity 58
59 1. A monopoly market consists of a single seller facing many buyers (utilities, postal services). 2. A monopolist's profit maximization condition is to set the marginal revenue of additional output (or a change in price) equal to the marginal cost of additional output (or a change in price). 3. Marginal revenue generally is less than price. How much less depends on the elasticity of demand. 4. A monopolist generally never produces on the inelastic portion of demand since, in the inelastic region, raising price and reducing quantity make total revenues rise and total costs fall! 5. The Lerner Index is a measure of market power, often used in antitrust analysis. 59
60 Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & sons, Inc. The purchaser may make backup copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. 60
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